AGRO TECHNIC PTE LTD
X-10 fogging solution for a cost effective way to increase your water-base fogging efficacy
AFX- fogging solution promises optimum weight/power ratio.
Our years of tenure in the industry allowed us to hone and develop expertise in the fields of pest control as a leading manufacturer & supplier for equipment and chemicals. Regardless in public health vector control, professional pest control to even plant protection. With our richness in knowledge and experience, we are able to put forth customized solutions that have proven to be highly effective in meeting our customers’ needs.
At AGRO TECHNIC, we believe that the efficacy of our machinery and chemicals speak for themselves. Not to play second-fiddle, our on-site and backup services are also strong complimentary arms that have made us the main provider of thermal fogging, ULV fogging and sprayer technologies.
Through the years, AGRO TECHNIC has evolved to become a synonym for high quality products, top-notch innovation and unrivaled customer service in the business. We view the development of best solutions for your everyday public healthcare problems as an exciting commitment, a driving force that spears us towards betterment.
Always undaunted in our strive for perfection, always putting our customers first and always stressing on the importance of quality products. This is the AGRO TECHNIC that the industry has come to revere; this is the AGRO TECHNIC that’s currently at your service.
Pest control is used to manage and eliminate pests. Designed to help decrease and suppress pest levels, Pro Active Pest Management utilizes environmentally safe pesticides that help control, prevent and eliminate both household and structural pests. Pest management remains as an essential measure to create a good living environment for all. This important task of pest control lies in the hands of everyone. Regardless if you are a country, state, corporation, division, home-owner and even individual.
Agrofog provides a complete suit of pest control product for companies and professionals from public health to the plant care industries. Attaining the highest quality in products and service, we continually innovate to bring new products and services for our customers. Pest Control remains as an essential step in reducing the growth of pest to eliminate the possibilities of an epidemic.
Stored Products Control
PROTECTION OF STORED PRODUCTS
…means to protect values, e.g. to avoid damage and loss.
Protection of stored products begins already with the storage. Thoroughly controlled goods and locations in excellent hygienic condition, which means without infestation of vermin or defects in the construction, are indispensable. On top of that, a permanent control by both installed monitoring systems and visual checks should be carried out to identify a potential infestation as early as possible.
Pests are introduced mostly by commodities and packages. Eggs or just enclosed grubs are mostly so tiny that they can pass even through fastidious control undetected. Moreover, several species of moths and beetles can immigrate and fly into the warehouse just as well as in other sensitive areas.
Damages caused thereby are manifold and often serious. Vermin is nauseous and, in the worst case, they transfer pathogenic and putrefactive agents (bacteria, viruses, worm eggs, spores). In this case, it often happens that whole sections have to be destroyed or the exploitation involves high financial loss. In addition, technical defects frequently disturb the production process due to infestation of vermin. Undetected infestation in finished goods implies rejection, recourse receivable, loss of clients and damage to its image.
In case of infestation of moths or beetles despite thorough prevention, control measurements have to be applied instantly, but even the treatment of the concerned goods with gases or physical measures are only able – if at all technically feasible – to avoid the worst at the most: an overlap to other sections. Comestible and luxury goods are already considered spoilt and excluded from sales as soon as they contain filth or excrements of pests.
Disinfection defines killing and/or inactivating pathogenic micro organisms. Disinfection can be carried out physically, chemically or biologically.
IGEBA Thermal Fog Generators and ULV Aerosol Generators are used for effective disinfection treatments.
The most common fields of application:
- Intensive livestock
- Food Industries
- Public Hygiene
- Public and Commercial Transports
- Catering Trade
Everywhere humans are gathering, always different germs clash together. Every human carries germs, which can be transmitted in different ways, i.e. droplet infection/contact infection. Generally this does not represent a special risk for healthy persons. If health is already weak due to other influences or if it concerns older persons and/or children, even an actual harmless infection can cause severe health impairments. Thereby heavy infections can spread extremely rapid. More and more epidemic or pandemic diseases are reported in media, i.e. caused by different influenza – SARS or the Bird Flu.
Thus an effective hygiene management gets more and more important in all ranges, in which increased infection risk exists. These are places where every day, many people come together i.e. public transports, food processing and handling (restaurants, large-scale catering facilities, etc.) and the places, where particularly jeopardized category of persons stay (hospitals, homes for the old people, schools/kindergartens, etc.).
The kind of disinfection depends on the way of infection of the pathogenic agent which has to be controlled.
Whereas pathogenic agents spreading by contact of infected persons and/or contaminated surfaces (contact infection) usually can be controlled by thorough disinfection of the hands and surfaces. But those spread over the air (droplet infection) or particularly in sensitive areas, i.e. surgery a large-scale treatment is necessary. Fogging technology offers an effective possibility, both, air- and surface disinfection. Hereby the liquid is divided into minute droplets and fills up the whole space with disinfection solution. Even difficulty accessible areas will be reached. The active agent unfolds its maximum effect, since the fog remains airborne over a long time and falls down slowly. Depending upon the space conditions and kind of the disinfectant used, IGEBA cold fog generators, i.e. Nebulo and Thermal Fog Generators, i.e. the IGEBA TF 35 can be applied.
Fogging of water-based solutions differ from oil formulations regarding droplet spectrum. Fogging of aqueous solutions produces a wet fog, whose droplets are clearly larger than VMD 10 microns. (VMD = Volume Median Diameter).That means that the droplet spectrum is larger compared to the droplet size of oil based solutions. Fog of water-based solutions, virtually is less visible, however has no influence on the efficacy. Finer droplets can be achieved using smaller dosage nozzles whereby the output quantity is reduced likewise.
IGEBA offers for Thermal Fog Generators special fog tubes for water as carrier. The special fog tube improves substantially droplet spectrum of water-based solutions. Addition of carrier, i.e. IGEBA NEBOL improves droplet spectrum additionally and droplets remain airborne for longer time. The visibility of the fog is increased, too.
The application of disinfectants from organic acids requires special application technology. IGEBA Fog Generators are available in acid resistant execution.
DISINFECTION IN FOOD INDUSTRIES
Food industry, particularly in dairy farming, meat and deep-freeze industry, as well as the agriculture and the pharmaceutical cosmetic industry, applies fogging for disinfection, especially air disinfection.
IGEBA ULV aerosol generators are very suitable by their specific characteristics, which increase efficiency of suitable disinfectants favourably.
Fields of Application:
- Beverage industry
- Fish Farms
- Meat industry
- Milk industry
- Mills and Cereal Production
- Mushroom production
DISINFECTION IN INTENSIVE LIVESTOCK
There are different sorts of micro-organisms in stables of productive lifestock. Under certain circumstances, mostly viruses, fungus, bacteria as well as parasitic spores cause diseases. Even otherwise innocuous germs can increase considerably in unfavourable husbandry and lead to so-called “factitive diseases”. Also the climate in stables in connexion with certain conditions in relation with husbandry and feed may cause permanent stress for the animals. This stress does not appear as visible disease, though, but leads to loss of efficacy and is generally called “hospitalism”.
DISINFECTION IN INTENSIVE LIVESTOCK
To secure productivity, it is indispensable to avoid an increase of the number of germs by methodical hygiene. The precondition is hygiene management that is especially tuned to the species. Besides thorough cleaning and careful disinfection, the aim is to keep the obtained hygienic condition while the stable is occupied. There might be always an increase in the number of germs by new flock of animals, excrements, feed, personnel, visitors and vermin (flies, beetles, rodents). To prevent this, regular disinfection in partly emptied stable units is necessary. It is very important to combat different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungus) by targeted application at the same time.
For a permanent result, not only all areas have to be treated evenly, but also the air has to be disinfected with appropriate active agents. Using fogging, where liquids are fragmented into micron droplets, the whole location can be filled up easily with disinfection solution. Even places that are difficult to access, e.g. ventilation ducts, cracks or gaps can be reached. Because of the fog staying airborne in the room without draining off, the active agent develops its maximum efficacy. At the same time, this method is splendidly applicable for disinfecting of the compartment air.
Water based solutions
Fogging of water-based solutions differ from oil formulation regarding droplet spectrum. Fogging of aqueous solutions produces a wet fog, whose droplets are clearly larger than 10 microns VMD ( = volume median diameter).That means that the droplet spectrum is larger compared to the droplet size of oil based solutions. Fog of water-based solutions, virtually is less visible, however has no influence on the efficacy. Finer droplets can be achieved using smaller dosage nozzles whereby the output quantity is reduced likewise.
Using IGEBA thermal fog generators, the portion of small droplets in a wider spectrum of droplets of the humid fog can be increased by operating with a special fog tube. Furthermore, the addition of special carriers, such as IGEBA NEBOL optimizes the droplet spectrum and has a positive effect on the ability of floating, consistency and visibility of the droplets.
Disinfection made of organic acids make special demands on the application technique. IGEBA fog generators are, therefore, also available in acid-proof design.
PROCEDURE OF A SYSTEMIC HYGIENE IN LIVESTOCK
Each contamination lowers the efficacy of the applied disinfectants considerably. Therefore, it is necessary to clean thoroughly all stable areas (walls, ceiling, floor, ventilation systems, devices and stable equipment) before every disinfection measurement. Mind the water-insoluble grease films on the surfaces! These grease films lead to a bad cleaning effect by bonding both filth and germs, and therefore, they lead to a loss of efficacy of the following disinfection. Soak all stable areas by using, for example, a high pressure cleaner; spray the surfaces with cleaning solution, allow to react and clean all areas with a high pressure cleaner.
To break the chain of infections, it is necessary to achieve a large decrease of the germ number. This can be done by an efficient disinfection after thorough cleaning.
Fogging with a disinfectant should be the main element of a substantial disinfection programme, which follows thorough stable cleaning. After cleaning all openings (incl. ventilation shafts) have to be well sealed, thereby the dense fog can fill the whole space. Ambient conditions should not differ too far from a temperature of 25°C and relative air humidity of 75% as this is ideal for the distribution of the droplets.
Treatment of the stable is carried out by a suitable opening at the front of the building (depending on the local facilities). You should use a small nozzle for fogging of the solution as well as to avoid big droplets that rather settle as wet condenstation on the floor close to the fog generator. This application demands more time, but is appropriate. Pay attention to the operator not using bigger nozzles to shorten time of output.
Use disinfectant safely! Always read identification and product information before use!
FOGGING IN GREENHOUSES
It is possible to achieve an effective coverage of the plants with 1 to 20 l of active solution per 1000 m2, taking into account the plants being treated.
When fogging the liquid is not dispersed directly on the plants, but distributed as a fine spray in the air space over the plant. The fine droplets remain for a long time airborne, than sediment and produce coverage over the plants.
Fogging should be used mainly as a preventive measure, i.e. to control fungus and/or insects to be controlled accordingly.
Fog Generators play an important role for operator security. It is very advantageous in time saving and labour costs. Particularly the ULV Aerosol Generators with time control systems are used, i.e. in night time and/or after work, especially when no workers are in the greenhouses. The reduction of the required solution quantity in relation to the surface which can be treated has substantial advantage compared to conventional spraying.
Any conventional insecticide, acaricide or fungicide emulsion concentrates (EC’s) or wettable powders (WP’s) can be applied (ULV Aerosol generators with agitator in solution tank). EC’s should
always be preferred because of their better atomizing properties.
Your choice of pesticide should always be based on the pests or diseases you want to control, taking into account the plants being treated. The pesticides are applied as a fog just as recommended for spraying, e.g. against White Fly, Mildew, Rust, etc.!
Plant compatibility, especially under glass, cannot be guaranteed. We, therefore, recommend to run your own trials with a few plants, as usually done with spraying as well, if no results are known.
Direct the fog generally above the plants, do not aim directly at plants in order to avoid overdosage and scorching. In low greenhouses or high growing cultivations, e.g. cucumber fog into the empty
spaces between the individual rows, but always slightly upwards! It is recommended that the unit should be carried through the greenhouse by swivelling the unit from right to left.
When fogging emulsion preparations, the procedere may be performed from the outside, e.g. through the door or another opening, if there are horizontal air ventilators available which drive the pesticide through the greenhouse. As soon as the pesticide has been evenly distributed throughout the greenhouse, switch the air circulating unit off, as otherwise congestion of the atomized pesticide can result in unilateral overdoses (damage to the plants). In this case, the fog generators must be at least 5 m from the first plants, as the ejection of larger drops could cause damage of the plants. Otherwise the plants in this area must be covered. When fogging indoors, it is vital to use a full mask and protective clothing.
The pesticide is dosed according to the instructions on the bottle. The following table is based on pesticides use for spraying. The average plant height must be known.
Nature does not know pests. This term is a subjective notation of men for organisms opposed to economic and sanitary interests. One differentiates between location of pests as well as form of damage.
If the damage occurs at stored corn, it is called storage pest. If the pest damages cables, it is called stock pest and if it distributes diseases, we talk about health pest.
Insects that damage stock are crawling insects, moths and mites, which damage stored foods and animal feed in quality and quantity, either by grub or contamination by frass, larvae skin or remains of crawling insects. It is important not to underestimate a possible contamination with pathogenic germs. Another problem is that most stock pests are cosmopolites and extraordinary heterophagous, i.e. little choosy.
Furthermore, health damage caused by pests is not limited to epidemics and diseases, but comprises just as well stitches, allergies, eczema, nauseation etc.!If the damage occurs at stored corn, it is called storage pest. If the pest damages cables, it is called stock pest and if it distributes diseases, we talk about health pest.
In the course of the time a large number of insecticides with specific characteristics have been developed. These active agents differ essentially through:
- Ability of decontamination
- Chemical group affiliation
- Compatibility to materials
- Economical obligations (registration costs/quantity/attainable price)
- Long-term effect
- Mode of action and/or impact on the target
- Resistance potential
- Specific effect
To achieve a specific target, these topics have to be considered towards each other carefully and the national and/or international laws and regulations, which regulate completely almost all ranges of pest control, must be kept.
BTI – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELIENIS
BTI is a biogenous insecticide. This biological preparation is bred millionfold and can be manufactured in the laboratory. BTI is a well established active agent against mosquitoes and highly effective. It is applied into the water living environment of the mosquito larvae. Anopheles larvae take up BTI through food intake to their body. BTI damages the digestive tract of the larvae. Thereby the food intake of the larvae is interrupted and it will die in the larva stage. BTI is available as liquid, powder, granules and tablets.
TYPES OF FORMULATIONS
Encapsulated pesticides / cap suspensions (CS) – The active ingredient is contained in an extremely small capsule. The capsules are suspended in a liquid. This formulation is mixed with water. The active ingredient is released controlled and slowly.
Emulsions (EW) – organic solvents are replaced totally or partly by water. Stable aqueous emulsions of water-insoluble organic pesticides are formed by mixing the pesticide with an aqueous dispersion.
Emulsive concentrates (EC) – are liquid formulations in which the active ingredient has been dissolved in oil or other solvents and an emulsifier has been added so that the formulation can be mixed with water or oil.
Solutions and water soluble concentrates (S) – are liquids in their original state and are completely soluble in water or other organic solvents.
ULV concentrates – High concentrate liquids may be thought of as special EC formulations. They usually contain high concentration of active ingredient. Most are made to be mixed with water or oil. ULV concentrates are made to be used directly without dilution.
Water-disperse-granulates (WG) – dry particles, which are processed to granulates. These are flowable. Contrary to wettable powders, granulates have a high part of dispersing agents to ensure a fine distribution when poured into water.
Wettable powder (WP) – are dry powdered pesticide formulations. They contain wetting and dispersing agents. The formulation does not form true solution. Thus agitation is required in the solution tank to keep the formulation in suspension.
METHODS TO COMBAT PESTS
The choice of specified methods to combat pests complies with art of pest, size of location, usage of location and area of distribution. There are two ways to combat pests: the active or the passive method. Basically, one could say: the more selective biocides are applied, the lower the quantity of pesticide and the lower probable stress for human beings, animals and the environment.
You achieve a visible result fast by applying the active method, e.g. when the biocide is brought directly to the pest by fogging, spraying or misting. The passive method aims at a longer lasting impact. As the insect has to come up to the pesticide, e.g. surface covering, gritting, trap or bait, it takes a while to show results.
To take advantage of both methods of application, they can be combined. For example, one can spray a barrier with a long durable biocide and fogs an agent with shoot effect (e.g. pyrethrum) afterwards.
More than ever in pest control, the society poses the question of being recognized as safe. The optimal adaptation of the highest possible use and lowest possible risk keeps posing a challenge, which we meet with profitable innovations.
Pest control in large locations
To not constrain operation procedures and to avoid high costs by loss of production, pest control in big locations of companies can often only be applied outside normal working hours or at week-ends. Even then, there are only a few hours time left and, therefore, a particularly effective and easy manageable technique is needed: the fogging technique.
ULV COLD FOGGERS IN PEST CONTROL
Fast reproduction of pests requires instant action. Only if the combat occurs before the copulation and/or oviposition of the according species, it is possible to break the life circle of the insect and eliminate effectively the spread. To prevent new settling, it is indispensable to apply the agent right into the smallest hideouts of hidden insects.
Here, applying minute droplets in the ULV technique is particularly appropriate. With our special ULV aerosol generators, the active agent is break up in to aerosols. The droplets of the aerosols are smaller than 50 micrometers (to compare: a human hair adds up to approx. 100 micrometers). The degree of sputtering is of vital importance. Each fog is polydispers, which means, it consists of particles of different size. In the ULV process, the spectrum of droplets is relatively narrow. With IGEBA ULV Aerosol Generators 90 % of all droplets are lower 27,9 microns at an output rate of 10 l/h through one nozzle (water) and lower 36,4 microns at an output rate of 20 l/h through two nozzles (water). Common sprayers can produce doplets of approx. 600 micrometers.
In practice, 1 gram of the insecticide “Detmolin” (808-biocide, Frowein GmbH und Co. KG) generates more than 250 million aerosol particles Therefore, billions of insecticidal nebulous droplets flow into the room per second, which are distributed through the strong airflow and penetrate deeply even into all cracks, where insects could stay.
The ultra-fine droplets stay airborne and enable the absorption of the active agent by the insects – either by contact or, as with Dichlorvos, by respiration. Because of the high steam pressure already during the fogging, Dichlorvos is transformed into gas, and the insects to reabsorb it by respiration.
The effort of the ULV process is low. Before the application, windows, doors etc. have to be closed as well as the air conditioning unit and ventilation ducts have to be switched off. Fogging is carried out from one place or mobile, according to local circumstances and product. In doing so, the most affected areas can be treated at short distance. After 4-6 hours, the rooms can be ventilated; air con and ventilation systems can be switched on again.
Please observe the product information and the dosage corresponding to the terms of approval by national/international legislation when applying agents. The specifications correspond to the maximum dose that guarantees even in adverse conditions the intended combat success. Depending on the species of pest, its age, stage, number, spreading, type of room, usage, constitution, climate of location, frequency of measures etc., we can tell from experience, that even considerably smaller amounts of the agent is sufficient.
EFFECTIVE EMPLOYMENT OF FOG GENERATORS IN VECTOR CONTROL
Thermal fog generators are preferably used to control flying vectors, i.e. adult mosquitoes. Thereby the application of environmentally friendly technique in vector control gains more and more in importance in view of present environment problems. With smallest application rate per area, IGEBA fogging technique contributes to avoid environmental damage.
IGEBA thermal fog generators can be used indoors as well as outdoors to produce a dense insecticidal fog, which causes with the correct insecticide an instant effect (knock-down-effect) and kills both flying and crawling insects. In appropriate weather conditions, the fog passes through an affected area outdoors in a very short time. Due to the little application rate, environmental stress is minimized, without influencing the high efficacy of the applied insecticide.
The extremely high number of small droplets created by thermal fogging generates a dense and visible fog (using an oil based formulation), which facilitates the observation and thoroughness of treatment.
In vector control, portable fog generators and also fog generators mounted on vehicles are used. Thermal fog generators mounted on vehicles are preferably equipped with remote control for that the unit can be steered from the driver’s cabin, which, therefore, eases the application considerably. Taking the wind direction and wind force into account – as well as the driving speed, the treated area is covered with fog to antagonize effectively flying insects without residue.
Portable thermal fog generators are often used to enable better individual treatment, respectively at places where access possibilities for vehicles are limited. Also, portable thermal fog generators are used indoors. IGEBA AF-34 is a fog generator especially designed for this purpose.
This method is not only capable to control flying vectors by contact with droplets, but it is also applied with the appropriate insecticide to gain an effective flushing effect.
Space spray has become popular to control urban vectors mosquitoes and does not have residual effect. It is very common in emergency cases. Fogging helps do bring down the infectious mosquito population.
Worldwide flies fly play a significant role as hygiene pests. The most known the “Common House Fly” (Musca Domestica) is followed by the fruit flies (Drosophila spp.), of the “small housefly” (Fannia canicularis), and the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
The common housefly, a typical cosmopolitan hygiene pest, follows humans from their origin area around the entire globe into moderate zones. It settles everywhere, where rotting organic wastes, filth of mammals etc. offer sufficient life conditions. Beside dumping grounds and trash cans in large-scale catering establishments, livestock represent ideal growing possibilities.
The housefly does not damage humans and animal directly. Due to rich nutrition possibilities and rapid generation sequence, the fly population increases to mass and thereby becomes extremely nuisance. Moreover so far approx. 100 pathogens have been proven in flies. Therefore the risk of the disease transmission by flies, particularly by contamination of food, may not be underestimated. The housefly is vector of infections, e.g. Thyphus, Cholera, Salmonellosis, Infantile paralysis, Mouth and Feet Disease.
Blood sucking flies are particularly in hot climates of great importance as vectors carrying diseases. The most known example is the Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomiasis), transferred by the Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.).
The stable fly, differs from the common housefly, especially due to its ectoparasitic life (sucks blood), bound to mammals (predominantly cattle and horses). This nuisance is responsible for the impairment of fact that the milk and fattening achievement. Moreover they transmit dangerous diseases, e.g. Anthrax, infectious anemia. They are also the intermediate hosts of different poultry tapeworms.
are counted to the group of the health pests, in particular all blood sucking pests. Moreover the pests, which bites etc. and causes pain to humans are defined in the same group. These health pests transfer different pathogens, i.e. they possess vector characteristic (Vector = carrier). They transfer diseases by unicellular plasmodia (malaria), through parasites (Filariose) or by viruses (Yellow fever, Dengue fever, West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, blue tongue disease etc..) or bacteria (Tularaemia). Thus, mosquitoes belong in the warmer climates to the most important vectors, but become more and more important in moderate zones and carry diseases (e.g. summer minor illness, Chikungunia, West Nile Virus, etc.)
An effective protection against the diseases transferred by mosquitoes can be achieved only with the combination of different control methods and the elimination of breeding sites.
Mosquitoes of the kind AEDES transfer Dengue and yellow fever. The Dengue virus (a Flavivirus) is worldwide common and causes the most frequent arbovirus (Arthropod-borne viruses) diseases of humans (30 – 50 million cases per year).
Different species of CULEX transfer the West Nile fever. This Flavivirus is transferred also by the Aedes.
CULEX spp. is the carrier of the Japanese encephalitis. AEDES Aegypti, but also other species of Mosquitos are vector for Chikungunya.
The MALARIA is an additional disease transferred by mosquitoes. The species acting as malaria vector is the Anopheles and contains more than 40 kinds. According to data of the WHO more than 1 million humans die from malaria and over 300 millions get sick every year.
ANOPHELES is dawn and night-active, preferentially common in the subtropics and the Tropics. The oviposition takes place depending upon species in oxygen-rich, slowly flowing, but also, in temporary, standing waters.
The spreading of the vectors (Aedes and Culex) is increasingly favoured by the living conditions of men. Clogged gutters, water containers, old car tires and others, which are filled with water temporarily offer ideal possibilities to mosquito, whose larvae develop in small standing waters.
Carrier of the Leishmaniosis, is the sand fly (Phlebotomen). In moderate climate zones Leishmaniosis is regarded as a tropical infection and known as travel-medical problem. However it is not considered that Leishmaniosen occur also in the Mediterranean area, and that sand fly were already discovered in Germany, too. The rising number of travellers to epidemic zones increases the number of the imported Leishmaniosis.
Worldwide approx.12 million people are infected with Leishmania. About 350 million humans live with the daily risk to get infect with the parasites transmitted by the sand fly.
- Bow mite
- Brass beetle
- Carpet beetle
- Clothes Moth
- Fur beetle
- white-shouldered house moth
- Bean beetle
- Bread beetle
- Cigarette beetle
- Corn moth
- Drug store beetle
- Fig Moth
- Flour beetle
- Flour moth
- Grain Borer
- Grain moth
- Meal Moth
- Mites (dif. species)
- Rice flour beetle
- Rice moth
- Rice weevil
- Seed beetle (dif. species)
- Seed moth
- Skin beetle
- Spider beetle (dif. species)
- wounded-tree beetle
VECTOR PESTS, NUISANCE
- Beetles (many species)
- Lice (head-, clothes-, crap louse)